Trade negotiations with New Zealand, response to Department for International Trade
What would you want the UK government to achieve through a free trade agreement (or related trade talks) with New Zealand, and why? Please supply your answer and any supporting evidence below
Sustain is the UK alliance for better food and farming and a registered charity, number 1018643. We represent around 100 not-for-profit national organisations and work with hundreds more at local level – local authorities, public health groups and community organisations. The Sustain alliance advocates food and agriculture policies and practices that enhance the health and welfare of people and animals, improve the working and living environment, enrich society and culture and promote equity. The alliance is independent from the agri-food industry, and does not take funding from for-profit food or farming companies. It is funded from grants (from charitable foundations and government, local authorities or related sources), membership subscriptions and sales of publications. Since the EU Referendum in June 2016, Sustain has been active in convening alliance members and others to discuss the implications of the UK’s decision to leave the European Union, and to work together to achieve the best possible outcome for the country’s food, farming and fishing, especially in relation to environmental and health concerns.
The Brexit debate has generated a lot of comment about how in the race to secure international trade deals, the UK may come under severe pressure to compromise our food, farming and fishing standards – a damaging race to the bottom. Sustain is not anti-trade and is interested in seeing the UK agree new trade deals that promote a beneficial race to the top. This is especially important given the necessity for food trade policies to support consistent and effective action on pressing global priorities such as climate change, biodiversity loss, the state of fish stocks and marine ecosystems, antimicrobial resistance, food poisoning, food fraud, obesity and diabetes, and measures to improve pay, fair trading and working conditions – especially in the food supply chain. We are confident that a high proportion of UK consumers and voters agree with us.
In April 2018 an IPPR poll found that, when asked whether the UK should lower food safety standards to secure a trade deal with the United States, for example, or retain current standards, only 8% of the public thought the UK should lower food safety standards, with 82% preferring to keep standards as they are. This is backed up by research recently undertaken by the consumer organisation Which? looking at food safety and more broadly at quality standards and methods of production.
We would therefore firmly expect the UK Government to honour and respect the concerns of the British public in relation to food standards – safety, quality, workers’ pay and conditions, environmental protection, animal welfare and sustainable farm livelihoods, as well as fair dealing with food producers at home and abroad. We want to be sure that trade deals affecting food standards are agreed only if we can guarantee that people in the UK can enjoy a supply of food that is:
The British public expects their food to be safe. International trade deals must not undermine this. The UK has lots of national priorities on things like reducing antibiotic use in medicine and farming, reducing food poisoning, promoting healthier children’s food and baby food, and reducing diet-related conditions such as obesity and diabetes. We expect trade deals to help achieve these, not undermine them.
We want trade deals to enable the prioritisation of the production, availability, affordability and promotion of healthy food, and not to make sugary, calorie-laden food and soft drinks cheaper, more accessible or more heavily promoted.
Everyone needs to know what they are eating and where it comes from, so we would like any new trade deal to protect country of origin labelling. We also want to be free to support producers of higher quality, traditional goods, especially those with protected geographical status, such UK as Melton Mowbray pies or Cornish sardines.
We want the UK to remain free to promote and protect accreditation schemes and kitemarks and not allow fake or copy-cat goods with lower ethical values. As consumers are increasingly seeking out higher welfare and quality goods, these labels incentivise producers to take part in ethical and sustainability schemes, which is desirable.
Respectful of UK consumer and health priorities
We want trade deals that ensure our food is, for example:
- Produced from healthy animals naturally healthy and resistant to disease; not with the overuse of the antibiotics that we so badly need for human medicine. UK trade deals must therefore, without fail, help and not hinder the realisation of international commitments such as the United Nations WHO/FAO One Health AMR strategy, to which the UK is a signatory.
- Processed in ways that are safe and meet UK consumer expectations. This must not favour ‘end of pipe’ chemical treatments for pathogens, and must favour production methods that build inherent hygiene and animal welfare, and be inherently less prone to infection and contamination. Signatories to the trade deals must also be required to monitor and transparently report on food poisoning rates and sources of contamination, and be able to be held accountable for any incidents that may arise as a result of food trade.
- Produced in full consideration of the special needs of babies and children, not made with excessive salt and sugar, questionable additives or low-quality bulking ingredients, and with full respect for the UK’s current approach to limiting contamination.
- Promoted and advertised in a way that prioritises healthy diets, upholding the UK’s bans and controls of promotion of High Fat, Sugar and Salt (HFSS) foods, especially in advertising or marketing communications targeted at children under the age of 16; also respecting the UK’s robust scientific standards for health and medical claims associated with food.
- For environmental protection and wildlife, produced without chemicals and pesticides currently banned in the UK and across the EU. And for our health, made in a way that respects limits to the amount of permissible chemical and pesticide residues in food.
- Labelled in a consistent way that UK consumers can recognise and understand, with standard ingredient and nutrition information, details of where the food comes from, allergen declarations and front-of-pack traffic-light colour-coded nutrition information. The UK must not be constrained by the terms of a trade deal from introducing mandatory warning labels for certain types of food, should these be considered necessary in future.
- Overseen by a consumer protection system that can monitor progress, identify and address problems, and give consumers the rights of information, complaint, refund and redress.
Good for people (including farmers, farm workers and food producers)
International trade deals must ensure that our food comes from farmers and food workers who have been paid and treated fairly in line with International Labour Organisation conventions, and with opportunities for people to make progress and earn more over time, in an enforceable way.
International trade deals must not enable the food and farming industries to compete on a ‘race to the bottom’ in terms of worker pay and conditions, must not put our domestic food producers’ livelihoods at risk, and must not put pressure on UK employers to reduce pay and undermine safe and decent working conditions.
Good for the planet
The UK Government must ensure, via its trade deals, that our food is produced in a way that is environmentally friendly and meets national priorities for conservation and enhancement of nature, as well as national and international targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It should not be produced using excessive chemicals and damaging techniques that harm pollinators such as bees, soil, air quality and clean water, as well as precious and irreplaceable wildlife and ecosystems at home and abroad.
Trade deals must help protect our seas, coasts and marine life. We must be able to prioritise a sustainable approach to fishing, fishery management, marine protection areas and marine ecosystem regeneration, as well as sustainable fish buying in the public and private sectors, in line with the UN’s official guidelines for responsible fishing.
Trade deals must not undermine the efforts of UK farmers and fishers and UK farming and fisheries policy to protect and enhance the natural environment and must not force our UK farmers and fishers to lower their standards in order to compete. Nor should trade deals undermine the UK’s ability to provide payments to farmers in return for environmental and social outcomes; and the UK’s ability to regulate the supply chain to achieve greater fairness and combat unfair trading practices; both as set out in Defra’s draft new UK Agriculture Bill.
Trade deals must not threaten our rules on buying sustainable fish for our schools, hospitals and armed forces – we want these enhanced and to see this encouraged and promoted more in the public and private sectors. The UK is still in the process of rolling out mandatory sustainability standards for the food served in Central Government, HMP prisons, the armed forces and NHS hospitals, as well as in many schools throughout the UK – trade deals must not undermine our ability and freedom to set and expect robust standards. This will include complete exclusion of some stocks and species, promotion of sustainably certified or scientifically assessed fish, and support for fisheries with questionable sustainability status to be put into fishery improvement programmes.
Good for animals
The UK Government must ensure that when it signs new trade deals, any meat, dairy or other livestock products we import comes from animals that have been treated well and transported and killed as humanely as possible, to at least UK animal welfare standards.
Public service procurement contracts
Trade deals must not in any way undermine the ability of our public institutions – such as schools, hospitals, prisons, central government and the armed forces – to buy well produced, healthy, fair and sustainable food. We must remain free to use our public sector food contracts to favour producers who abide by high standards that can demonstrably provide public benefits.
What would you want the UK government to achieve through a free trade agreement (or related trade talks) with New Zealand, and why?
Sustain and our members are deeply concerned that in the race to secure international trade deals, the UK may come under severe pressure to compromise our food standards – and standards of production in farming and fishing – generating a regrettable and damaging race to the bottom.
Farmers’ representatives and unions have warned of the threat to domestic industry if British farmers are forced to compete against cheaper, low-quality food imports. The Welsh lamb industry in particular are concerned about the perfect storm that could be created by a New Zealand trade deal combined with a no deal Brexit. In 2017 the Rural Secretary in Wales briefed the Welsh Assembly that up to 93% of Welsh lamb exports currently go to the EU, and that if the UK were unable to strike a trade deal with the EU after Brexit, they would face a 12% tariff under World Trade Organisation rules. Other reports say the tariffs could go as high as 40%.
There is growing concern that in scenarios in which UK farming is expected to compete on price with countries that operate to different or lower standards, UK farming may become unprofitable – some of it already is. Post-Brexit scenario-modelling by the UK’s Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board suggests that in some possible scenarios, many UK farmers risk seeing their incomes halve after Brexit. Some commentators foresee the end of smaller and family farming, unless explicitly supported.
UK farm policy is in the process of transformation. The draft UK Agriculture Bill currently before parliament signals the intention of Government to prioritise environmental protection, encourage farming to play its role in mitigating and adapting to climate change, to direct public payments to achieve environmental outcomes, and to regulate the supply chain so that farmers are treated more fairly. Such welcome moves must be enhanced and not undermined by trade deals.
We also note that Welsh lamb has Protected Geographical Indicator (PGI) status. The EU estimates that PGI products are sold (on average) 2.23 times as high as a comparable non-PGI products so any loss of this status as part of a ‘no deal’ Brexit would further jeopardise the industry in Wales.
Trade deals must not inadvertently support the overuse of antibiotics in farming – either in the UK, through British farmers being forced to compete with food produced to lower standards; or overseas – antibiotic-resistant superbugs know no boundaries, hence the UK’s official support for the United Nations WHO/FAO One Health AMR strategy. The systems of farming that use much higher levels of antibiotics are generally more intensive, cramming thousands of animals into small spaces, resulting in disease and faecal contamination that require higher levels of veterinary intervention, including antibiotics. UK trade deals must not support antibiotic-dependent intensive livestock systems, as these now pose unacceptable risks to human health and the global economy.
According to New Zealand’s Lamb Co-operative, antibiotics are not used prophylactically in the lamb industry, which is good news.
We were also encouraged to find some evidence that the therapeutic use of antibiotics in farming in New Zealand is apparently one of the lowest in the world and that they plan to phase out their routine use by 2030. (Is this soon enough?). A study published in the New Zealand Veterinary Journal in 2016 found that New Zealand is the third lowest user of antimicrobials in animal production. However, conflicting reports apparently found sales of antibiotics in farming in NZ were increasing, so we would expect our trade negotiators to clarify this.
Under EU rules, UK consumers are currently protected from questionable food production methods like chlorine-dipped chicken, hormone-grown beef and routine or excessive use of food irradiation. We don’t want to be forced to accept these due to a trade deal, without healthy democratic debate and accountable decision-making, in relation to the implications of such treatments for food production methods, hygiene, disease control in humans, plants and animals, and animal welfare.
Food standards in the UK – quality, integrity, safety and traceability – are already under severe pressure as a result of the paucity of resources for essential services such as testing, inspection and border checks. Changes to trade, movement of goods, potential border arrangements and our food standards being portrayed as ‘non-tariff barriers to trade’ are causing exceptional concerns and uncertainties for the food industry and standards bodies.
Trade deals must not expose us to increased risk of food poisoning – and even increased deaths – from pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria and E.coli 0157. The UK food and farming industries and government agencies have been working hard to tackle contamination from these and other dangerous bacteria and viruses. Trade deals must not undermine this progress.
It is alarming that New Zealand apparently used to have the highest rates of campylobacter in the developed world, but we are encouraged that they have set themselves targets to reduce this. However, we ask our trade negotiators to investigate this further, and transparently to take into account food safety considerations when exploring food trade deals, particularly in relation to livestock products.
Meat and dairy
We note the encouraging statement on international trade from New Zealand that “As agreed with the EU in scoping discussions, the promotion of sustainable development will be a key feature of the outcomes that New Zealand will be seeking. This includes robust provisions on the issues of trade and environment and trade and labour.” It also includes provisions in key areas of cooperation such as climate change, and a greater contribution of trade and investment to sustainable development, “in areas such as trade in climate -friendly products and technologies, and corporate social responsibility”.
In October 2018, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) issued a wake-up call to humanity, warning that “Limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius would require rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society.” In this context, it must be noted that meat, dairy and other livestock-derived products – those that both the UK and New Zealand wish to promote in trade deals – are inherently climate-unfriendly. All policy – including trade policy – must now prioritise overall reduction of production and consumption of livestock products, and a focus on environmental regeneration and greenhouse gas management in any livestock systems that continue to be supported at lower output. Without attention to the important matter of livestock-related greenhouse gas emissions, it looks very unlikely that global warming can be kept within the 1.5 degrees limit. As the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation has noted, livestock is one of the top sources of greenhouse gases that are contributing to climate change, due to the combination of enteric fermentation (digestive gases released by ruminant animals such as sheep and cows), manure management, feed production (deforestation, fertiliser use, soil loss and soil carbon release), and energy consumption.
We are concerned that UK producers might be forced to lower their animal welfare standards in order to compete with livestock products produced to lower standards. Conversely, we are concerned on behalf of animals that the lowest standards in either country (New Zealand or UK) should not prevail and set the new low bar for trade and common practice. Principles of high animal welfare must be championed throughout. Information and labelling for livestock products must be reliable and transparent about ‘use by’ and slaughter dates, country of origin, methods of production and (a future possibility) environmental or climate change impact. There should be no future constraint on the UK being able to set such requirements for domestic and imported produce, when sold in the UK. Sustain’s specialist animal welfare member organisations, including Compassion in World Farming, have provided further commentary on specific areas of concern, and where there are differences in approach between the UK and New Zealand:
- Farrowing crates
In the European Union, farrowing crates must not be used in pig production after the fourth week of pregnancy following a 2013 EU Directive. They are illegal at all times in the UK and Sweden. They are permitted in New Zealand. New Zealand’s Primary Production Committee is meeting in the second half of October to discuss a petition to end the use of farrowing crates. The National Animal Welfare Advisory Committee considers that the industry should shift voluntarily away from farrowing crates and has supported research to help this. However, they stopped short of a ban on the basis of ‘economic unviability’. See: Review of the use of farrowing crates for pigs in New Zealand
- Lameness and mortality in cattle, sheep, deer, pigs and goats
The New Zealand Government acknowledge that lameness in sheep is an animal welfare concern and have gone some way to addressing it in new regulations in 2018 that allow direct penalties for supplying lame animals for transport. They are expecting a greater focus on lameness as a result of new regulations (New Zealand Animal Welfare (Care and Procedures) Regulations 2018): https://www.mpi.govt.nz/protection-and-response/animal-welfare/guide-to-the-animal-welfare-care-and-procedures-regulations/
- Live exports
The UK permits exports of live animals for slaughter and breeding, which many consider to raise concerning animal welfare issues. New Zealand does not permit export of live animals for slaughter, but does permit export of live animals for breeding. New Zealand animals exported live for breeding are subject to an Animal Welfare Export Certificate (AWEC) which must be granted by the New Zealand Ministry of Primary Industries (MPI) prior to the animals being exported. The MPI must approve the journey to take place and the management that the animals will experience during export, prior to them leaving New Zealand’s shores. MPI also requires a post-voyage report to be provided by the exporter after the voyage has concluded outlining the welfare of the animals during the journey and any problems experienced. Whilst the UK Government has recently made warm indications that a ban on live export of animals may soon be introduced, this has not yet featured in the Government’s legislative programme. UK standards are therefore worse than New Zealand’s on this animal welfare issue.
- Recognition of animal sentience
We are pleased to note that New Zealand has introduced recognition of animal sentience into legislation. In the EU, animals are formally recognised as sentient beings in the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, with Article 13 of the Treaty requiring EU Member States to ‘pay full regard’ to animal welfare. Yet the Brexit process has failed to repatriate this principle into UK law, with the EU Withdrawal Act failing to adopt such Treaty principles. Whilst the UK Government has recently made warm indications that ‘animal sentience’ will be reinstated as a UK legislative principle, the timetable for introducing this measure has been delayed.
Is there anything else you would want to say about the UK’s future trading relationship with New Zealand? Please supply your answer and any supporting evidence below
Sustain’s focus and expertise is on food, farming and fishing. We have also been working with others to campaign for transparency in UK trade negotiations, in recognition that this general principle would be beneficial across a very wide range of social, environmental, food, fishing, farming, health and other concerns. We want the Government’s trade team to be required to:
- undertake impact assessments (including on issues such as environment, labour, farm livelihoods and public health), that are comprehensive, researched independently and published in advance;
- undertake proactive consultation with civil society, scientific specialists, parliamentarians and affected groups in order to set mandates for negotiators in advance;
- give parliamentarians sufficient time and powers to debate and vote on prospective trade deals.
Parliament should have a legal right to scrutinise and debate impact assessments before having a vote on a negotiating mandate. The assessments should also be revisited periodically to a) take account of the negotiated text b) assess whether projected gains and risks have materialised. Parliamentarians could also choose to insert a review clause into the deal related to the impact assessment in order to enable termination.
Negotiations should be fully transparent with the negotiating mandate published (as it is in the US), negotiating proposals and texts for each round published and requirement to update parliament on progress.
Final deals must be subject to parliamentary debate and affirmative vote before being ratified or implemented in any form.
Finally, Sustain and its alliance members are very concerned about the potential for future trade deals to generate costly Investor-State Dispute Settlements. We would like to see them excluded from any deal as they are the mechanism that could be used to undermine UK producers and to challenge environmental and food standards and protections.