News Children's Food Campaign

New evidence of harmful health effects prompts call to ban energy drinks sales to under-16s

Over 40 health organisations and experts including the Children's Food Campaign are urgently calling on policy makers to reignite plans to restrict sales of energy drinks to children, after a new evidence review of the effects of energy drinks on children revealed wider ranging risks of mental and physical health problems associated with consumption.

Energy drinks carry warning labels saying "Not suitable for children". Credit: Joenomias | Pixabay

Energy drinks carry warning labels saying "Not suitable for children". Credit: Joenomias | Pixabay

A new study published in the Public Health journal adds further worrying evidence that consumption of energy drinks high in caffeine and sugar can be harmful to the health of children and young people. In the comprehensive study researchers from Fuse, the Centre for Translational Research in Public Health at Teesside University and Newcastle University, looked at data from 57 studies of over 1.2 million children and young people from more than 21 countries.

Additional health effects noted in the research review include increased risk of suicidal thoughts, psychological distress, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, depressive and panic behaviours, allergic diseases, insulin resistance, and tooth decay. The study also links consumption of the drinks with an increased risk of poor academic performance, sleep problems and less healthy dietary patterns. Energy drinks consumption has also been associated with increased risky behaviours such as substance abuse, violence and unsafe sex.

In response to the new report, the Children’s Food Campaign, Food Active and 39 other health organisations, researchers and public health leaders have written urgent appeals to the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care Victoria Atkins, and also to the Labour shadow health team, asking them how much more evidence is needed before the Government keeps a promise to restrict sales of high caffeine energy drinks to under-16s.

Signatories to the letters also include the lead author of the report Dr Amelia Lake from Teesside University, plus the Obesity Health Alliance, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, British Dental Association, British Dietetic Association, Diabetes UK, Association of Directors of Public Health, the Food Foundation, British Medical Asssociation, Obesity Empowerment Network, World Cancer Research Fund, Action on Sugar and 11 local directors of public health.

Read the letter to Secretary of State, Rt Hon Victoria Atkins MP

Read the letter to Labour Party shadow Health Secretary Wes Streeting MP

The UK government ran a consultation on ending the sale of energy drinks to children in England and announced an intention to bring in legislation in their 2019 green paper ‘Advancing our health: prevention in the 2020s’. While 93% of respondents to the consultation supported restricting sales to under 16s, there has been no further action. The authors of the letter point out that since that time, energy drinks sales have continued to boom. 

New market data published in The Grocer in December 2023 showing that sports and energy drinks sales are continuing to boom, reaching more than £2.2 billion in 2023, up 21.6% on the previous year , with new drinks such as Prime arriving on the market, backed by high profile social media influencers. In the letter to policy makers, health organisations say “We are calling on the government to uphold its promise and finally implement the national sales restriction on these harmful drinks to under 16s. Four years of inaction on this issue is simply too long.”

Barbara Crowther, Children's Food Campaign Manager at Sustain, said:

“It’s not right that companies are profiting from energy drinks when evidence shows they’re harming children and young people’s health. These concerning findings should prompt our government to act. But they’ve been disappointingly silent on the issue for the past five years. Over that time, energy drinks companies have increasingly targeted young people with even higher caffeine content drinks, putting more of them at risk.

We need our government to step up and follow through with their planned restriction of sales of these drinks to under 16s.”

Beth Bradshaw, Project Manager at Food Active, said:

“This latest academic paper really does beg the question how much more evidence is needed for the government to act on energy drinks. Since they promised action back in 2019, we have seen the energy drinks market expand further and the likes of Prime Energy have been hugely popular, and marketed to young people, despite the packaging saying itself it is not suitable for children.

“That’s why Food Active, the Children’s Food Campaign and 39 other academics, local public health directors and campaign groups are calling on the government and the Labour party to commit to introducing a sales restriction on energy drinks to under 16s as part of their manifestos. The health of our children cannot wait. The time to act is now!”

Lead author Amelia Lake, Professor of Public Health Nutrition at Teesside University and Associate Director of Fuse, the Centre for Translational Research in Public Health, said:

“Energy drinks are marketed to children and young people as a way to improve energy and performance, but our findings suggest that they are actually doing more harm than good. We have raised concerns about the health impacts of these drinks for the best part of a decade after finding that they were being sold to children as young as 10-years-old for as little as 25p. That is cheaper than water and pop! The evidence is clear that energy drinks are harmful to the mental and physical health of children and young people as well as their behaviour and education. We need to take action now to protect them from these risks.”

Co-author Dr Shelina Visram, Senior Lecturer in Public Health at Newcastle University, said:

“We are deeply concerned about the findings that energy drinks can lead to psychological distress and issues with mental health. These are important public health concerns that need to be addressed. There has been policy inaction on this area despite government concern and public consultations. It is time that we have action on the fastest growing sector of the soft drink market.”

William Roberts, Chief Executive of the Royal Society for Public Health, said:

“This important review adds to the growing evidence that energy drinks can be harmful to children and young people’s physical and mental health, both in the short and long-term. That’s why we need the UK Government to step up and deliver on its 2019 commitment to ban sales of energy drinks to under 16s. In doing so it would not only be following the evidence, but also following the example of countries that have already restricted sales to children, a move supported by the majority of the public.”


Press Coverage for this story

Watch the ITV news special

Children's Food Campaign comments in The Daily Mail, The Grocer, Food Ingredients First



Commercially available energy drinks contain between 160-200mg of caffeine per can. This is at least double the amount found in an average cup of coffee, at around 80mg. The drinks also contain over four times the amount of caffeine as an average can of cola. Many energy drinks are also high in sugar, containing between 9-13g per 100ml.

European regulations require any drink containing more than 150mg of caffeine to carry a warning label stating "High caffeine content. Not recommended for children, or pregnant or breast-feeding women." 

Many large UK retailers have voluntarily stopped selling energy drinks to under-16s, but they are still sold in others and widely in smaller stores. Legislation would effectively create a level playing field for all retailers. 

The top 5 energy and sports drinks brands in the UK are Red Bull, Monster, Lucozade Energy, Prime and Relentless. The category is worth an extra £390.2m in 2023 after 81.4 million more litres went through tills, according to new market data published by The Grocer in December 2023. Total category sales reached £2,217 million in the 53 weeks to September 2023, up 21.6% on the previous year.

In May 2023, a primary school in Newport issued a warning notice to all parents following a pupil having a 'cardiac episode' and having to have their stomach pumped after drinking a can of Prime Energy. Prime Energy, fronted by social media influencers Logan Paul and KSI who provide major huge youth appeal, contains 140mg caffeine per can, whilst the non-caffeinated Prime Hydrate range which is widely sold and popular with children has very similar branding, increasing risk of confusion or young people wanting to trade up to the caffeinated product.




Published Monday 15 January 2024

Children's Food Campaign: Better food and food teaching for children in schools, and protection of children from junk food marketing are the aims of Sustain's high-profile Children's Food Campaign. We also want clear food labelling that can be understood by everyone, including children.

Latest related news

Featured in the press

The Daily Mail

Fresh warning over energy drinks for kids as big scientific review suggests 25p cans could raise the risk of heart problems and depression

Children's Food Campaign Coordinator Barbara Crowther contributes. 

Monday 15 January 2024 | Visit

Support our campaign

Your donation will help us champion children’s rights, parent power and government action to improve the food environment children grow up in.


The Green House
244-254 Cambridge Heath Road
London E2 9DA

020 3559 6777

Sustain advocates food and agriculture policies and practices that enhance the health and welfare of people and animals, improve the working and living environment, promote equity and enrich society and culture.

© Sustain 2024
Registered charity (no. 1018643)
Data privacy & cookies