The Real Bread Campaign, part of Sustain: the alliance for better food and farming,
is funded by the Big Lottery's Local Food programme and the Sheepdrove Trust.
And we'd love you to make a donation to support the charitable work of the Real Bread Campaign.
Simply put, because Real Bread doesn’t need them. However manufacturers may present their reasons in terms of consumer demand, their motivation for adulterating their products is basically generating greater profit.
Examples of the purposes of additives include:
Click here for more on additives, including a category known as processing aids that don't even have to be declared on the label.
A report by the New Economics Foundation shows the value of supporting local businesses: in one study, Northumberland County Council found that their local suppliers of items such as bread re-spent on average 76% of their income locally, while suppliers based outside the county re-spent on average only 36%. In this example, £1 spent with a local business yields £1.76 for the local economy, while £1 spent with a business outside the area would contribute just 36p. Because of the multiplier effect, it has been calculated that, as a result, local spending contributes around four times as much to the local economy as spending with non-local businesses. The importance of such re-localisation of business, particularly in areas of disadvantage, is summarised in the National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal (2000):
‘The problem is not necessarily that too little money flows into a neighbourhood. Rather it is what consumers, public services and businesses do with that money. Too often it is spent on services with no local presence, and so immediately leaves the area.’
Local bakers also provide a way of preserving traditional baking skills that are otherwise at risk of being lost, and can provide a focal point in local communities where other services have been lost. Environmentally, local bakers can dramatically reduce food miles compared to plant bakers, by producing a fundamental part of people’s diet locally or even at the point of sale.
Centrally-supplied baked goods chain outlets, the loaf tanning salons in many supermarkets, and particularly, industrial loaf factories (generally known as plant bakeries), are designed to be ‘cost-efficient’. In part, this means an ongoing drive to keep staffing levels to an absolute minimum.
In fact, 80% of the UK’s 12 million loaf a day market is sliced up between a mere nine companies, operating just 47 factories between them.
Taken to a national level, the demand of approximately 12 million loaves a day would support 25,000 small bakeries each employing three people – offering a total of 75,000 skilled jobs for local people.
This is nearly three times as many Real Bread jobs as all of the 26,000 ‘bakers and flour confectioners’ currently employed , and over 13 times as many Real Bread businesses than the 1,892 engaged in the ‘manufacture of bread; manufacture of fresh pastry goods and cakes.’
In terms of bread, surely ‘fresh’ means just made, doesn't it? Treating a product to prolong artificially the characteristics of freshness is effectively loaf botox.
Just as a chemical facelift does not change a person's age, a ten day old loaf that is made using processing aids to prolong softness, pumped full of salt and sprayed with a fungicide to inhibit the growth of mould, is still a ten day old loaf.
It should be noted that certain sourdough Real Breads will keep for a week or more, the products of the fermentation process acting as natural preservatives.
For notes on storing bread and slowing staling click here.
We believe in an honest price for an honest loaf. There are many reasons why a loaf of Real Bread baked by a local, independent bakery might differ in price from an industrial loaf or supermarket in-store 'bakery' baguette. For a particular bakery these might include:
For more thought on the real value of Real Bread and true costs of other alternatives, click here.
But if price at the till is your main consideration, baking your own Real Bread at home (either by hand or in a machine) could well be cheaper than even the cheapest supermarket loaf.
* Loss leader is the term for an item a retailer sells below what it cost them to put it on the shelf (and in extreme cases at below the cost of production) at a loss in an attempt to entice customers into the shop in the hope that they will also purchase other items at the same time or even become a regular customer. It is commonly used on what are termed 'known value items' - products of which shoppers tend to know the price. Some shoppers will base their opinions of retailers overall pricing on just a few KVIs - 'milk, loaves and bananas are cheaper here at Safeburys than Tescisons up the road...'
Most modern British recipes call for strong or bread making flour. This is what flour that has high levels of gluten, the stretchy protein that traps bubbles of carbon dioxide and allows them to expand, causing bread to rise. Look for a protein content of 12-15%
You can make bread with lower protein flours and indeed some styles of bread (e.g. traditional baguettes, focaccia, ciabatta and other breads with a more open crumb structure with large, irregular holes) rely on this.
Beyond these technical considerations, we would suggest using flour that is:
And if you purchase either direct or from a locally owned retailer, more of your cash is likely to be re-invested in that local community.
Click here for notes on finding independent mills.
Modern roller milling is ruthlessly efficient at stripping away the nutrient rich outer layers of wheat grains, leaving behind not much more than starch and gluten. Additionally, the heat generated by the process actually destroys some of the compounds. Compared to whole wheat, refined white flour is highly depleted. Example losses are:
Vitamin E 93% lost
Vitamin B6 87%
Vitamin B2 81%
Vitamin B3 80%
In recognition of the fact that roller-milled white flour is so nutritionally depleted, since the 1950's UK law has demanded that calcium, iron and vitamins B1 and B3 be added to all British milled breadmaking flour (except wholemeal) in an attempt to compensate for some of the shortfall. There is still, however, a whole range of minerals, vitamins, antioxidants and phytonutrients that are not replaced at all during this 'fortification'.
White flour is much lower in fibre than wholemeal. A 2011 study by Imperial College found that a daily increase in fibre of 10g can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by 10%. See Is sourdough better than ‘normal’ yeast? below for how to get more out of wholemeal.
White flour has a higher glyceamic index than wholemeal, with implications for diabetes
The simple grinding of the whole grain in a single pass through and between two horizontal, round millstones is at the heart of traditional milling. It is designed to produce wholemeal flours with excellent flavour and nutritional value. Unlike roller milling, which removes the outer layers of the grain, stone milling crushes the grain and all parts are mixed in together. Even when finely sifted to produce lighter coloured flours, they will still contain fine particles of the fibrous and most nutritious parts - the germ and bran. There has also been research to suggest that the heat generated by roller milling destroys greater percentages of nutrients in comparison to stone ground flours of equivalent extraction rates.
The Real Bread Campaign calls for more research to be done on the beneficial effects of longer fermentation, especially in the presence of sourdough bacteria.
Real Bread is a natural product and just as with fruit or cheese it takes time for it to ripen. Although research so far has been limited, there is growing evidence that leaving dough to rise for longer periods can have a range of benefits to the consumer. Examples include:
See also the section on ‘Is sourdough better than ‘normal’ yeast?’ below
‘Baking off’ part-baked loaves or baking frozen doughs is another way that manufacturers try to deceive us into thinking that we are eating fresh bread. Examples are the often doughy ‘French’ bread you find in some mini-markets, slightly anaemic baguette sandwiches in railway stations and even certain supposed ‘artisan’ breads coming from some supermarket in-store bakeries.
One of the problems with these are that they may well have been produced using the same processing aids and additives as the dreaded white sliced loaf.
Another is that for every bakery operative who has been taught to hit an oven’s on switch, that person plus several others could be trained up to be skilled bakers instead. Surely such artisan craft skills have greater value to the individual and his or her community than the ability to push the red button that says ‘bake’.
A further reason is that the weight and size of chilled dough or a part-baked loaf are greater than those of the flour used to make them. It therefore takes more energy to transport dough or bread than flour or grain.
For more on this issue, please see our report Are Supermarket Bloomers Pants?
Salt serves three main functions in bread:
Bread can be made without salt, the traditional breads of Tuscany are an example, but many people in the UK would find bread made without any salt at all to be bland.
For this reason, the Real Bread Campaign encourages all bakers to ensure their loaves contain no more than 1% salt in the finished loaf. In 2011, many Real Bread bakers told us that they do so already. Click here to read more.
For much more on salt in bread, click here.
The Real Bread Campaign calls for more research to be done on the beneficial effects of sourdough.
There is nothing wrong with fresh or dried yeast (though you might want to look out for additives in some instant/fast acting yeasts) but research has shown that sourdough has the following advantages:
Over many hours of slow fermentation, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce lactic and acetic acids (and other compounds) which research suggests perform a remarkable number of useful tasks, such as:
Providing an environment favourable to the production of phytase. Cereal bran contains phytic acid, which inhibits the body's ability to absorb certain nutrients – e.g. it binds with calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc, making them unavailable to us. Phytase breaks down the phytic acid, allowing the body to absorb more of those nutrients. Lopez, Hubert W; Duclos, Virgile; Coudray, Charles; Krespine, Virginie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Messager, Arnaud; Demigné, Christian; Rémésy, Christian (2003) Making bread with sourdough improves mineral bioavailability from reconstituted whole wheat flour in rats. Nutrition, Volume 19, Issue 6, June 2003, Pages 524-530.
Reducing the levels of phytic acid This is the main form in which plants (especially seeds and pulses) store phosphorus, but it combines with certain minerals including calcium, zinc, magnesium and notably iron in a way that makes the human body unable to absorb and make use of them. Leenhardt, F. et al (2005). Moderate decrease of pH by sourdough fermentation is sufficient to reduce phytate content of whole wheat flour through endogenous phytase activity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005, 53: 98-102.
Counteracting the potentially negative effects of certain things that can be found in dough and bread, e.g. reducing levels of acrylamide, a carcinogen that is sometimes found in the crusts of bread
Modifying or eliminating the protein fractions (especially certain gliadins) that are responsible for triggering wheat intolerance and coeliac disease: Di Cagno, R. et al (2004). Sourdough bread made from wheat and non-toxic flours and started with selected lactobacilli is tolerated in coeliac sprue patients. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2004 Feb; 70(2): 1088-96.
The acids act as a natural preservative, enhancing the keeping quality of the bread: Sourdough: a tool for the improved flavour, texture and shelf-life of wheat bread by Kati Katina, VTT Publications, Vuorimiehentie, 2005 and Effect of Sourdough Bacteria on the Quality and Shelf Life of Bread Salim-ur-Rehman et al. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6 (6): 562-565, 2007
A blend of bacterial culture along with baker's yeast can give better performance for better quality and shelf life of the bread. Faqir M. Anjum, Imran Pasha, Kashif Ghafoor, M. Issa Khan, M. Ali Raza, (2008) "Preparation of sourdough bread using a blend of bacterial culture and baker's yeast", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 38 Iss: 2, pp.146 - 153
Free amino acids and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), products of lactic acid bacteria, may increase a sourdough’s nutritional value. For example: 'The amount of GABA in 150 g of Pane di Matera PGI [an Italian sourdough culture] represents the minimum effective daily dose to achieve a lowering of blood pressure in mild hypertensives.' Marco Gobbetti, quoted in the American Society of Microbiology article Microbiotas Characterized for 19 Traditional Italian Sourdough Breads. See refers to the study titled: Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiotas of 19 SourdoughsUsed for Traditional/Typical Italian Breads: Interactions between Ingredients and Microbial Species Diversity
The other thing to say is that sourdough enormously improves the flavour of bread, especially rye. Rye flour is naturally alkaline and has a pretty bland/pasty taste unless fermented with an acid dough.
According to Diabetes UK:
With thanks to Diabetes UK for pointing us towards the following, here are some studies that show the positive effects of sourdough fermentation on the Glycaemic Index (GI) of bread.
Sourdough - leavened bread improves postprandial glucose and insulin plasma levels in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance Acta Diabetologica,Volume 45, Number 2, 91-96
The acute impact of ingestion of breads of varying composition on blood glucose, insulin and incretins following first and second meals British Journal of Nutrition (2009), 101, 391–398
Use of sourdough lactobacilli and oat fibre to decrease the glycaemic index of white wheat bread British Journal of Nutrition (2007), 98, 1196–1205
Glycemic index and phenolics of partially-baked frozen bread with sourdough Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Feb;62(1):26-33. Epub 2010 Aug 17.
A dietary exchange of common bread for tailored bread of low glycaemic index and rich in dietary fibre improved insulin economy in young women with impaired glucose tolerance European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2006) 60, 334–341
Sourdough bread: Starch digestibility and postprandial glycemic response Journal of Cereal Science, Volume 49, Issue 3, May 2009, Pages 419-421
Sourdough fermentation as a tool for the manufacture of low-glycemic index white wheat bread enriched in dietary fibre European Food Research and Technology, Volume 209 / 1999 - Volume 233 / 2011
Some people have medical conditions that cause them to have adverse reactions to certain foods. Individual response varies, and so whilst one person might not be able to eat any cereal containing gliadin (a type of protein that combines with glutenins to form gluten in wheat but is also found in other cereals, such as barley and rye), another might have problems with modern wheat (Triticum aestivum) but not with spelt (Triticum aestivum var. spelta), which is a relative of modern wheat. Individuals' responses to the avenin in oats (a protein similar to gluten) also varies.
Coeliac disease is not a food allergy or intolerance: it is an auto-immune disease that is triggered by the omega 5 gliadin proteins found in cereals including wheat (spelt is a type of wheat), barley and rye. Some coeliac sufferers also cannot eat oats. In common with other auto-immune diseases (including rheumatoid arthritis) this causes the body to attack itself. In the case of coeliac disease, the immune system produces antibodies that attack the lining of the digestive system, sometimes resulting in perforation of the stomach or intestines. The Coeliac Society estimates that the disease affects around 1 in 100 people in Britain.
An allergy is a condition that causes the body mistakenly to recognise a substance –such as gluten - as toxic and produce histamine in defence. The body then reacts to the histamine in any number of ways, including rashes and breathing difficulty. At an extreme level, a person’s histamine response is so great it causes the body to go into anaphylactic shock, which in a minority of cases may even result in death.
A food intolerance is a sensitivity that can't be diagnosed by a standard allergy test. The causes are various, including the body not producing an enzyme that is necessary for breaking down a certain foodstuff or part of one; a toxic compound in the food; a pharmacologically active compound (e.g. caffeine) to which some people are sensitive; or interaction with compounds in the food and drugs that a person is on. Symptoms of an intolerance could include uncomfortable indigestion and/or excessive gas production, leading to a bloated feeling.
Some symptoms are common to all three types of condition, and also to other totally different conditions and illnesses.
In order that you are not putting yourself at risk (or unnecessarily depriving yourself of Real Bread!) we urge you to obtain a professional diagnosis of your condition and narrow down exactly to what it is that you have an adverse reaction. Perhaps the diagnosis might show that your condition is in fact associated to one or more of the artificial additives found in factory loaves, or that you could eat Real Bread made by the sourdough or other longer fermentation method. But do get yourself diagnosed before you start experimenting!
Your GP will be able to advise you on how to get expert diagnosis of any of the above. For advice on how to get a diagnosis as to whether or not you have coeliac disease, visit www.coeliac.org.uk
As noted above, at least one study has found that sourdough bread made from wheat and non-toxic flours and started with selected lactobacilli was tolerated in coeliac sprue patients. A number of other studies have also shown the use of longer fermentation in the presence of lactic acid bacterial (sourdough) cultures have reduced the levels of gluten or gluten proteins in dough.
By contrast, we have concern that the addition of transglutaminase, one of the processing aids on the market for use by industrial bakers, could exacerbate the problem. Gerrard, J. & Sutton, K. (2005). Addition of transglutaminase to cereal products may generate
the epitope responsible for coeliac disease. Trends in Food Science & Technology 16 (2005) 510-512.
We prefer to ask - are there changes that could be made in the way that wheat is bred, grown, milled and turned into loaves that could allow more people to eat Real Bread made with wheat? Britain is predominantly a wheat eating nation, so why does it seem that more and more people are reporting that they have difficulty eating certain types of wheat loaf? See below for more on these and related issues.
But back to the original questions: as yet, nothing in nature - or of human invention - has been found that functions in the same way as wheat gluten - the stuff that allows us to make fluffy, well-risen loaves. This seems to leave people who have been professionally diagnosed as needing (as well as those who bizarrely choose) to avoid gluten with two options:
There are some Real Bread recipes out there that come close to wheat loaves but we don't know many. Campaign co-founder Andrew Whitley dedicates a whole chapter of his book Bread Matters to gluten-free baking without artificial additives.
Other places to find recipes for gluten-free Real Bread:
We'd love to find more!
If you have a gluten-free recipe for bread you'd be happy for us to publish please email it to realbread [at] sustainweb.org.
Doesn't have to be one that tries to pretend to be a wheat flour sandwich loaf (though that's are we get asked for the most) but it does have to be made without without any wheat (including spelt), barley or rye. It also can't involve xanthan gum or any other artificial additives, and preferably should be vegan - egg white is a common alternative protein.
What Coeliac UK said
In May 2012, we invited Coeliac UK to work with us on producing a short guide/recipe booklet, to which they replied:
'As much as this idea sounds very nice I am afraid that it is not something that we would e [sic.] able to commit to. We do obviously have a lot of people looking for gluten-free recipes, especially bread, but we tend to invest our resource into buying published books for our online shop.'
Some people do report bloating (in extreme cases the abdominal swelling becomes visible externally) after consuming wheat and other cereals.
In 2012, the National Association of British and Irish Millers (which represents the big industrial, and other, millers) and the Federation of Bakers (which represents the industrial loaf manufacturers, major customers of NABIM's members) funded a British Nutrition Foundation review paper called 'Does bread cause bloating?'
This document resulting from this attempt to find existing research on the issue makes several references to what we at the Real Bread Campaign hear time and again from Real Bread bakers and members of the public: there are many people who report difficulties after eating a factory loaf that they simply don't experience when eating genuine sourdough, or other Real Bread.
The paper's findings also support the Campaign's assertion that not enough research has been done to establish the cause of the issues that so many people report. Sadly, rather than 'more research needed', its conclusion frames this as 'no evidence'.
We ask: don't the people who report suffering after ingesting factory loaves and other wheat-based products have the right to know the cause? Wouldn't everybody (the industrial bakers and the people who sell them the flour included) benefit from establishing whether there are ways to reduce the number of people reporting such problems? Could a change in one or more of the following have a beneficial effect: cereal breeders considering digestibility and nutritional values, not just yield and the levels/strength of protein; the farming methods (fertilisers have an effect on the nutritional profile of wheat - including the proteins that trigger allergies and the coeliac response), a change (or elimination) of certain artificial additives and added enzymes; or a change in loaf production methods - for example longer fermentation involving sourdough culture.
Sourcing ingredients for bread locally has three major advantages:
The shorter the distance that grain has to travel to be milled, flour travels to be baked and loaves travel to the consumer, the less the energy consumed in transport. As much of the transportation at each of these stages is currently done using fossil fuels, any reduction will bring down carbon emissions.
Local supply chains help to generate local employment. As outlined under ‘Why Real Bread’ on our About Real Bread section, money that is spent with local suppliers is more likely to be re-invested locally, which is of benefit to the economy of the local community.
Local supplies and stores of grain are much more resilient to interruption by factors such as adverse weather conditions, industrial action and fuel shortages, which have more opportunities to have impact on transport systems in extended chains.
Otherwise, why not ask them what they use to make their bread and how they make it? If they do bake Real Bread, please suggest they add it to our finder to let everyone else know, too.
With current legislation not requiring ingredients to be listed on food that is prepared at the point of sale (eg in-store bakeries), it’s hard to say.
Between June 2009 and February 2010, the Real Bread Campaign made numerous attempts to contact the major chains to find out how many stores bake from scratch (the use of frozen dough and part-baked loaves is not out of the question) and what goes into the manufacture of their loaves.
You can read a report of our findings here.
That's what we'd like to know! You can help us by asking them (a query from a customer might be more effective than one from the Campaign) and emailing any responses you receive to us, so that we can share with others.
28 October 2011
Thank you for your recent correspondence with our Customer Service Department regarding the above-mentioned product. We are sorry for the delay with your response.
We have contacted our Quality Assurance Department who have advise the following Bread from our in-store Bakeries are baked without the use of any artificial additives or processing aid,
Original French Baguette
Multigrain Petit Pain
Stone Baked Baguette
Pain au Chocolat
Pumpkin Seed Roll
Pumpkin Seed Roll and Artisan Rye Loaf have no artificial additives ascorbic acid is already added to the flour in the mill, it is not effective in the final product and therefore not declared.
Also we can advise that our Bread is brought into our stores part frozen then cooked in store.
We hope this information has been of assistance to you.
For and on behalf of Lidl UK GmbH
15 August 2011
We sent the following email to Lidl:
I co-ordinate the Real Bread Campaign and have just read in British Baker magazine that Lidl is rolling out in-store bakeries.
It appears from the article that all are bake-off operations, i.e. bringing in previously baked loaves and re-baking them in store to brown the crust. Is this correct or are you baking from scratch in any stores?
My second question is - which of your in-store bakery loaves are baked without the use of any artificial additives or processing aids? If you are able to say that any are, you will be the first supermarket chain in the UK to tell us that any of its in-store bakery loaves are what we call Real Bread.
Could it be that the reason that Pret's sandwiches are not 'plastered with labels containing lots of boring numbers, names, dates and symbols' is simply that current legislation does not require them to do so, rather than because the loaves and wraps it uses are made without them?
In July 2011, it was brought to our attention that Pret claims that it 'creates hand made, natural food, avoiding the obscure chemicals, additives and preservatives common to so much of the 'prepared' and 'fast' food on the market today.'
On the back of one of its sandwich cartons, it points out that 'English law insists factory-produced sandwiches are plastered with labels containing lots of boring numbers, names, dates and symbols.' By contrast, it notes that Pret sandwiches do not have labels. We believe the inference is that Pret sandwiches are made without substances that could fall into any of these categories.
So, we asked Pret:
The company's technical manager responded that 'Pret’s recipes are obviously an extremely important part of the company’s know how and we are not in the habit of sharing these with the general public.'
Whilst we understand that a company may have certain 'trade secrets', surely if Pret was using what we call Real Bread (i.e. flour, water, yeast and salt, plus in some cases, nuts, seeds etc), this recipe wouldn't be one of them.
Pret's reticence to divulge what goes into its loaves and wraps leads us to believe that they are in fact made using one or more of the 'obscure chemicals, additives and preservatives' it claims to avoid.
We cannot agree with Pret's statement that 'no label is good', or with the law that indeed says that a list of ingredients is not needed on food prepared for direct sale. A list of ingredients and nutritional information on the label is a key element in enabling people to make better informed choices about the food they eat.
Pret's technical manager also wrote that 'Creating a recipe for bread which produces thousands of loaves a day with a shelf life of more than a few hours is a demanding task and we would be happy to discuss this further with the Real Bread team.'
We replied that if Pret would like to send to us an outline of their general requirements, we'll be happy to help them circulate this (or even an invitation to tender) to the Real Bread bakers in our network. To date, they have declined to send this information to us.
Last updated September 2010
"We believe the bread Greggs provides is high quality, freshly baked bread at the price and quality which our customers demand. Greggs bread making predominantly follows a traditional craft baking method, which includes a three hour ferment that is added to the dough. So, in addition to flour, water, yeast and salt, we use this specially created ferment containing malts and yeast extract along with a secret natural ingredient, to give our bread its unique flavour. All our bread is free from artificial colours, artificial flavours and contains no hydrogenated fats or oils. We believe our Greggs recipe helps to produce superior bread quality that is more resilient and has a delicious crust and character, as evidenced by the continuous high regard shown for our products by customer research.
We are proud to have built our business over the years to a point where we now operate 1445 shops, served by our ten regional bakeries and employ 289 Master Bakers, who are “skilled bakers” having undergone a combination of external vocational qualifications as well as rigorous and continuous internal skills training. Our bread is freshly made daily from scratch in our regional bakeries.
We firmly believe that we bake and sell high quality bread which we are passionate about and gives our customers great quality, freshness and value."
"As we said in our initial response, Greggs provides high quality, freshly baked bread at a price which our customers demand.
We can confirm that our bread is made slightly differently to the approach you describe in your campaign in that we use dough conditioners. We bake our bread each day in our bakeries which is then delivered fresh to our shops each morning. We believe the dough conditioners are necessary to provide optimum freshness for our customers at point of purchase in our shops. Our combination of this; our natural liquid fermentation; our predominantly traditional bread making processes; our free from artificial colours and flavours approach; and the fact that our bread is free from hydrogenated fats and oils, is, we believe what gives our customers both quality and freshness.
We hope that answers your query. Thank you again for your interest."
Last updated September 2010
In February 2010, a Campaign member sent us this snap of the ingredients on the side of a Subway box.
Last updated September 2010
Though ingredients lists are not printed on its packaging, the burger chain has a Q&A website, at which it gives answers about (amongst other things) the additives us uses in its buns. Search for existing answers using keywords such as buns, or bread, or ask your own.
As far as we can tell, not many. Click here to read more about what hides in the industrial products that account for around 80% of the loaves we buy.
At present, the only mass-produced, pre-wrapped brands that have told us that they meet our definition of Real Bread are The Village Bakery, Vogels, Doves Farm and Cranks, as well as the light rye quarter sold under the Waitrose brand.
If your bakery produces pre-wrapped loaves without the use of artificial additives, flour 'improvers', dough conditioners, processing aids or any other artificial additive, please let us know.
Spelt is a type of wheat and is NOT gluten free! It is NOT suitable for people with coeliac disease.
According to the Food Standard Agency's guidance notes for The Bread and Flour Regulations 1998 (as amended), spelt is "...a cereal containing gluten and therefore a product containing spelt cannot be labelled as being gluten free. It may also be misleading to label a product containing “spelt” as wheat free as spelt is a type of wheat (Triticum spelta) and this would make spelt unsuitable for anyone with a wheat allergy or intolerance."
The protein level of spelt is similar to that of bread wheat, and the gliadins (the group of proteins that are toxic to people with coeliac disease) that combine with glutenins to form gluten are also similar in structure to bread wheat gliadins.
Spelt is in the same genus as modern bread making wheat. The biological name for modern bread making wheat is Triticum aestivum, and that for spelt is Triticum aestivum var. spelta, though often abbreviated to Trtiticum spelta. Just like bread wheat, the genetic structure of spelt is hexaploid - they both have six set of chromosomes.
That said, there are differences in spelt's gluten structure and some people who have been diagnosed by a food allergy expert as having an allergy or intolerance (neither of which is the same as coeliac disease, which is an auto-immune condition) to bread wheat or its gluten (and many more who are self-diagnosed) report that they have fewer, or no, problems digesting spelt.
See also coeliac disease, food allergy and food intolerance above.
Though the overall protein content of spelt is generally high and the structure of its gliadins are similar to those of bread wheat, the structure of the gluten it forms is different and tends to be softer and less elastic than that of bread wheat gluten. This means that it is less able to trap carbon dioxide and so spelt loaves tend to rise less than bread wheat loaves.
If working with spelt flour, you might prefer to either 'cut your coat according to your cloth' and bake a lower rising type of loaf, or add strong bread making flour if you want a more voluminous loaf.
Further reading on spelt:
We've yet to hear from a professional baker who uses bottled water: it's far too expensive, a waste of plastic, and not necessary. The level of chorine in municipal supplies is so low that it has little effect on fermentation or flavour. Water hardness is a factor, but not really an issue until you reach large scale production. You can read more on water in baking here.
Dried active yeast is the same thing as fresh (aka compressed or cake) yeast, just with much more of the water removed.
Some bakers say they prefer the taste of Real Bread made with fresh yeast, though many others we know say they can't tell the difference.
Like many dried foods, dried active yeast will keep longer than fresh (months, rather than days or weeks), especially if you keep it in an airtight container in the fridge.
For conversions between how much dried active, fresh and instant yeast to use, click here.
Two brands of dried active yeast that are available widely around the UK are Allinsons and Doves Farm. Both are sold in cylindrical tins and, unlike the same brands' instant/easy bake/fast acting yeasts, are free from artificial additives.
Read how to adapt dried yeast recipes to use fresh yeast (and vice versa) here.
Instant (aka fast acting or easy bake) yeast is the same species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as fresh and dried yeast, though it is a different strain, bred to produce more carbon dioxide in a shorter period of time.
Most brands of instant yeast (including some that are certified organic) that we have found contain artificial additives and so loaves made using them fall outside the Campaign's permitted ingredients.
For more on yeast, click here.
Although yeast is more active, and therefore will make dough rise more quickly at warmer temperatures, it will still produce carbon dioxide in cooler conditions. Even dough left in the fridge will rise, though it will take much, much longer. Many professional Real Bread bakers put dough in a special piece of equipment called a retarder to slow yeast activity down, partly to help control the time at which the dough will be ready to bake, and partly because the longer fermentation times allows more flavour to develop.
In fact, keeping dough somewhere too warm can lead to losing control of the fermentation, which can lead to over-proving. In extreme cases, this can cause the dough to collapse and perhaps evens start to break down and become unable to produce properly risen loaves. And if the put the dough somewhere too hot, you’ll kill the yeast, which dies at around 60-65C
No. There is more than enough food for yeast in flour. Flour contains some simple sugars, and enzymes produced naturally by the yeast break down some of the starch into more sugars upon which the yeast then feeds. Unless you are making an enriched, sweet bread, or know of another specific reason for which extra sugar is essential to give a particular result, we suggest you leave out any sugar called for by a recipe.
No. Fat or oil can help the softness of the crust and to help a loaf stay moist slightly longer but it is not necessary. Using slightly more water in your dough will also help it to stay moist, and using a slower sourdough recipe will help delay staling even longer.